Estonia Country Report
Estonia's favourable-to-businesses tax system, low level of social unrest, and stable political scene offer a good business environment. Estonia is focused on ICT, and the state authorities are investing in increasing internet literacy and in improving online information services. The quality of roads is around the EU average, but railways require modernisation and expansion. The port infrastructure is well developed. The labour force is well educated but becoming increasingly expensive. Strikes are usually peaceful and not very disruptive; sympathy strikes are highly unlikely. The risk of corruption is moderate.
Far-right groups are the most likely perpetrators of violence, with moderate risk of injury to representatives of ethnic and sexual minorities, and refugees. The risk of jihadist terrorist attacks is low. In 2016, a court sentenced two Russian citizens, permanent Estonian residents, for supporting Islamic terrorism by transferring funds to an associate fighting in Syria. This was rather an isolated incident, however, and does not indicate an increased terrorist threat within the country. Cyber attacks, perpetrated by Russian individuals or groups acting with the tacit approval (but not necessarily direction) of the Kremlin, are likely. Attacks would probably include cyber vandalism against government websites, potentially causing temporary disruptions and software failures.
Estonia faces a steady, if not overt, threat from organised domestic and cross-border crime. Organised crime focuses on drug smuggling into the EU, and Russian and Chechen criminal interests operate in areas such as Tallinn and Narva. Judicial reforms have made counter-narcotics structures stronger. However, Estonia's borders with Finland, Scandinavia, and Latvia were opened when the Baltic states joined the EU's Schengen zone in 2007. There are dozens of fatalities annually caused by illegal synthetic opiate consumption, especially fentanyl, putting Estonia’s mortality rates some way above those of all other European countries since at least 2011. Local law enforcement services have stated the opiates are imported from Russia.
Relations with Russia have deteriorated since the increased presence of NATO forces in Estonia. This is reflected in intensified disputes over the legacy of World War II and the rights of the Russian minority in the country. The border treaty remains unratified by the Russian and Estonian parliaments. Estonia has been erecting a fence and deploying surveillance equipment along the land border with Russia, which will most likely generally improve the security situation in Estonia. Interstate war is highly unlikely because of Estonia's NATO membership and Russia's involvement in Syria. Airspace incursions by Russian transport and fighter aircraft remain probable. Cyber espionage and cyber attacks against Estonia are likely.
Vaccines required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Vaccines recommended for all travelers
Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).
Vaccines recommended for most travelers
Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.
Vaccines recommended for some travelers
Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.
Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).
The climate is continental in the interior of the country and temperate along the coasts thanks to the presence of the Baltic Sea. Summers are relatively hot and winters are cold, sometimes harsh, with temperatures falling as low as -30°C. Muddy conditions are common in the spring due to the melting of winter snows.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz