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Peru Country Report

Country Risk Level



Executive Summary

As the COVID-19 virus continues to spread, intense scrutiny and supervision from authorities, including fines and closures in cases of perceived regulatory non-compliance, are very likely to affect business reopening across sectors. An increase in looting risks against supermarkets, food retail stores, and pharmacies is likely in low-income urban areas where markets are closed and where a large segment of Peru’s informal sector lives and works. Mining regions are likely to initially be less affected by the virus spread, but as the economy and trade resume, increased movement of people from other regions will heighten contagion and protests risks there. Projects in Southern Peru (including the hot spot Las Bambas project in Apurimac) face greater protests and delays because of the local community’s environmental concerns and demands for compensation via social infrastructure investments and the creation of local jobs. However, outright project cancellation is unlikely. Early investment in the regions through the Social Advance Fund will mitigate protest risks. President Martín Vizcarra remains obliged to negotiate any new legislative initiatives with different smaller factions in Congress, which strongly oppose his administration. This will make it very difficult or impossible to pass legislation during his last year in office within the 2016–21 constitutional term: no major labour, pension, or tax reforms are likely in the one-year outlook. Opposition factions in Congress are unlikely to secure enough votes to impeach or approve a vote of no confidence to oust Vizcarra (or force him to resign) before the general election in 2021. IHS Markit projects that Peru’s 2020 GDP growth will decline by 12.5% and rebound to 7.7% in 2021, based on an expected lower outturn of most GDP components caused by the COVID-19-virus pandemic-induced slowdown. Lower commodity prices are contributing to decreased profits in the mining sector, lowering government tax revenue.

Operational Outlook

President Martín Vizcarra is likely to continue efforts to attract foreign investment, particularly into extractive industries, and signal that Peru’s operational environment is business-friendly. The private sector is likely to remain highly influential in policymaking and since the 1990s, successive governments have given priority to the private sector to run key sectors of the economy, including oil and mining. Port, airport, sanitation, and road infrastructure upgrades are a government priority. Infrastructure remains poor in remote regions far from the capital Lima and coastal areas. Levels of corruption and bureaucracy are very high. Unlike local community opposition against extractive industries, labour strikes are unlikely to involve property damage or roadblocks.


The Sendero Luminoso (SL: Shining Path) insurgent group has declined in strength and scope since its peak in the late 1980s and early 1990s, and no longer poses a security threat beyond the remote coca-growing areas where it operates. SL’s area of activity is in the central-southern Valley of the Apurímac, Ene, and Mantaro rivers (VRAEM), where it co-operates closely with drug-trafficking groups. SL’s presence in this region gives rise to ongoing risks of extortion, sabotage, property damage, and kidnapping for firms operating in or around VRAEM. Natural gas, construction firms, and military helicopters face a higher risk of attack within the VRAEM.


Peru is one of the less dangerous countries in Latin America. Street crime is highest in central areas of the capital, Lima, and in coastal urban areas. Violent crime, such as armed robbery, assault, extortion, and carjacking, is likely to increase, particularly in northern coastal areas, mainly around ports, including the cities of Chimbote, Piura, and Trujillo.

War Risks

Any risk of war is likely to remain low and further recede after a favourable International Court of Justice ruling in 2014 over a maritime border dispute with Chile. Both countries have pledged to adhere to it and are likely to continue strengthening relations under the Pacific Alliance regional integration group. The country last fought a war in 1995 against Ecuador, but in 1998 signed a peace treaty and relations driven by trade will continue improving. President Martín Vizcarra is likely to continue good relations with Peru’s neighbours and further regional economic integration.

Social Stability


Mining and oil and gas projects face violent protest and minor property damage risks in the one-year outlook. Social conflicts over access to natural resources are concentrated in the regions of Ancash, Apurímac, Arequipa, Ayacucho, Cajamarca, Cusco, Junín, Piura, Puno, and Tacna. Well over half of these conflicts relate to concerns over mining and hydrocarbons projects, and these sectors will continue to provoke protests over the next 12 months. COVID-19 spread is increasing looting risks in urban centres.

Health Risk

Vaccines required to enter the country

No vaccinations are required to enter the country.

Vaccines recommended for all travelers

Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).

Vaccines recommended for most travelers

Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.

Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).

Typhoïde : le vaccin contre la typhoïde peut être administré par injection (en une seule dose) ou par voie orale (quatre doses). Le vaccin est efficace à 50-80 pourcent ; aussi, il convient de prendre toutes les précautions hygiéniques nécessaires lors d'un déplacement dans une zone à risque (cf. ne boire que de l'eau en bouteille, éviter les aliments insuffisamment cuits, se laver les mains régulièrement, etc.). Le vaccin injectable peut être administré dès l'âge de deux ans (six ans pour le vaccin oral).

Vaccines recommended for some travelers

Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.

Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).

Malaria: There is currently no malaria vaccine. However, various antimalarial prophylactics are available by prescription and can reduce risk of infection by up to 90 percent. Different medications are prescribed depending on the risk level and the strains of the virus present in the destination. Antimalarial tablets need to be taken throughout the trip to be effective and may need to be taken for as long as four weeks following the trip.

Yellow fever: A yellow fever vaccination certificate is generally recommended for travelers visiting various regions, with the exception of Cusco, Lima, Machu Picchu, the Inca Train, and all areas over 2300 m in elevation. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease; it should be taken ten days in advance to be fully effective.

Natural Risks

Peru is prone to natural disasters, particularly due to its location within an active seismic zone. In August 2007, a violent earthquake (magnitude-8.0) hit the coastal areas to the south of Lima (affecting the towns of Pisco, Chincha Alta, Nazca, Ica, and San Vicente de Cañete), leaving more than 500 dead and causing substantial damage to roads and tourist facilities in its wake. The country is also home to a number of active volcanoes, including Mount Ubinas, located approximately 100 km (60 mi) from Arequipa, Peru's second-largest city.

The rainy season typically lasts from November through April (from January to May in the Cusco region). Torrential rains with the potential to cause deadly floods (e.g. along the Tumbes River) and landslides are common during this period.  The 2017 rainy season was particularly devastating. More than a million people across Peru were affected by torrential rains - which resulted in major flooding and landslides and more than 100 fatalities - from December 2016 to April 2017. The northwest of the country was particularly hard hit.


Travelers should be aware that roads are generally poorly maintained and roads in mountainous areas can be particularly dangerous; fatal car accidents are common. It is advisable to only drive during daylight hours in rural areas and along the Pan-American Highway.

Highway banditry is also an issue in rural areas.

For long distance travel, consider traveling by air. All major destinations are served by an airport. No Peruvian airlines appear on the European Union's "blacklist" of airlines that are banned from EU airspace due to substandard security practices.

For security reasons, never take an unlicensed taxi (see CRIME section).

Practical Information


Summers (December to February) along the coast are hot (26°C to 30°C) and winters are cool (10°C to 18°C) and foggy. In the Andes, the dry season lasts from May to September and the rainy season from October to April; temperatures there are high during the day (25°C) but nights are cool. The same seasonal conditions are also seen in forested zones (in the east); temperatures, however, tend to be higher (35°C in the summer).

Useful Numbers

Country Code: 51
Police: 105
Fire Dept.: 116
Ambulance: 116


Voltage: 220 V ~ 60 Hz


Risk Level
Critical High Medium Low Minimal