Slovakia Country Report
Slovakia's favourable geographical location and low-cost labour are attractive for FDI. Strikes are rare; wage negotiations are the main reason for industrial action in privately owned companies, primarily in the automotive sector. However, corruption and administrative red tape, alongside incomplete infrastructure and lack of skilled labour, hamper Slovakia's regional competitiveness. Corruption allegations affect all echelons of public administration. Public procurement and allocation of EU subsidies are particularly vulnerable. The new centre-right government has a strong mandate to address this problem and reforms are due in several sectors, including the judiciary and state procurement.
Although part of NATO, Slovakia generally keeps a low international profile, making it an unlikely target for terrorist attacks staged by Islamist militant groups. However, if attacks were launched, the most likely target would be government and parliament premises, embassies, public transport and large shopping centres in the capital, Bratislava. Home-grown extreme-right paramilitary groups, which strongly oppose Slovakia’s EU and NATO memberships, pose risk to related institutions as well as ethnic and LGBT+ minorities. Some of their members possess weapons and military training.
Crime rates have been falling since Slovakia attained independence in 1993. On average, fewer than 10% of Slovaks report crime or violence annually. The decline in criminal activity has been notable in theft, economic crime, and violent crimes. Nonetheless, extremism is rising: several members of the opposition Kotleba’s-People’s Party Our Slovakia (Kotlebovci-Ľudová Strana Naše Slovensko: K-LSNS), including its leader, have been charged and/or found guilty of propagating hate crime. In May 2019, a perpetrator was jailed for six years for a racially motivated attack, which resulted in the death of a Filipino national. The Bratislava district remains the most affected by crime levels.
The risk of interstate conflict between Slovakia and any other country is and is likely to remain low. The country is part of the EU, NATO, and the regional Visegrad Four (V4) group, which means that any potential conflicts are more likely to be solved through diplomatic channels rather than military conflict. Although some bilateral issues exist (such as the nuclear power issue with Austria and the issue of the treatment of ethnic minorities with Hungary), these are highly unlikely to escalate into an armed conflict. Slovakia has a sizeable Hungarian ethnic minority (around 10% of the population). However, the risk of civil war is highly improbable.
Vaccinations required to enter the country
No vaccinations are required to enter the country.
Hepatitis A: A vaccine is available for anyone over one year of age. The vaccine may not be effective for certain people, e.g. those born before 1945 and who lived as a child in a developing country and/or have a past history of jaundice (icterus). These people can instead get a shot of immune globulin (IG) to boost their immunity against the disease.
Hepatitis B: A vaccine is available for children at least two months old.
Diphtheria-Tetanus-Polio: A booster shot should be administered if necessary (once every ten years).
Tick-Borne Encephalitis: For stays in rural zones and for hiking enthusiasts (for children over the age of one).
For Children: All standard childhood immunizations should be up-to-date. In the case of a long stay, the BCG vaccine is recommended for children over one month and the MMR (measles-mumps-rubella) vaccine for children over nine months.
The country often suffers from summer floods following heavy rain. In 1998, 2002, 2006, and in 2013, the country experienced severe flooding that left dozens dead.
Between November and March, important snowfalls can isolate some parts of the country (roads and rails cut, electricity outages, etc.).
Despite the small number of highways, the motorway is generally well developed. However secondary and peri-urban roads may be in bad condition (deformed pavement, pothole, indication failure, etc.).
Roads in remote areas are often poorly maintained and can be dangerous. Extreme vigilance is advised at night due to the lack of proper street lighting. Horse-drawn carts, agricultural vehicles, cyclists, and vehicles without taillights or reflectors are common. Moreover, drivers can be very aggressive.
Vehicles are required to be fitted with snow tires from November 1 until May 1. Dipped-beam headlamps are required to be turned on during both the day and night. It is necessary for drivers to display a sticker on a vehicle windshield, authorizing the circulation on highways and national roads, otherwise punishable by fine. This sticker, which has a limited period, is available at border posts, post offices and at some gas stations. Driving under influence is strictly forbidden.
Travelers should note that few domestic flights are operated in Slovakia.
Trains are slow but the railway network is dense and in a good state.
It should also be noted that public transportation (tramways, bus and trolley bus in Bratislava) is reliable and well-developed.
Taxis are usually reliable and inexpensive. It is advised to order a taxi ahead. Riders should check the meter and ask for a price estimate before using the taxi. It is recommended not to use informal taxi companies.
Slovakia has a continental climate. The hottest and driest regions are the southern and eastern plains. The coldest month is January (-2°C average) and the hottest are July and August (21°C average). The period from May to September is generally quite sunny, despite periodic thunderstorms.
Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz