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18 Dec 2019 | 07:42 PM UTC

India: Anti-CAA protests due nationwide, including Mumbai December 19 /update 13

Opposition leaders call for nationwide anti-CAA protests, including in Mumbai, on December 19; further protests, clashes expected over the near term



Anti-Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) activists have called for nationwide protests on Thursday, December 19, including in Mumbai. Participants in Mumbai plan to gather from 16:00 (local time) at August Kranti Maidan

Tens of thousands gathered across India on Wednesday, December 18, to denounce the measure, prompting authorities in Karnataka state to implement restrictions on large public gatherings in major cities, including in Bengaluru. Similar restrictions will also be implemented in Lucknow (Uttar Pradesh state) and in Delhi's North East district. The restrictions will go into effect on Thursday morning (local time).

While the curfew has been lifted in Guwahati (Assam) as of Tuesday, December 17, schools are to remain closed until Sunday, December 22. The curfew in Dibrugarh (Assam) was relaxed from 06:00 to 20:00 (local time). The Assamese chief minister also confirmed that authorities had restored broadband internet services to the whole state as of Tuesday morning. 

The Rashtriya Janata Dal political party has also called for a nationwide general strike on Saturday, December 21. 

While normal train and flight operations have largely resumed as of Wednesday, further transportation disruptions are possible - particularly in protest-affected areas - at short notice in the coming days. A heightened security presence and localized telecommunication and business disruptions are also to be expected nationwide over the coming hours and days. Clashes between protesters and police cannot be ruled out.


The Citizenship Amendment Act (CAA) seeks to provide citizenship to non-Muslim minorities fleeing religious persecution in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. Opponents claim that the legislation is in violation of the constitution, which prohibits religious discrimination against citizens. In conjunction with the National Register of Citizens (NRC), activists also claim that it specifically seeks to target Indian Muslims. The NRC aims to identify illegal immigrants by requiring individuals to prove their citizenship based on specific documentation prior to a certain cut-off date, including land and tenancy records. The NRC has so far only been implemented in Assam, where more than 1.9 million people failed to qualify as of August and were subsequently put in detention centers. However, on November 20, Home Minister Amit Shah said that the NRC will be implemented nationwide. While the NRC will expose all illegal immigrants, opponents of the CAA argue that the act isolates Muslim Indians as it favors all non-Muslim religious minorities who may fail to qualify for the NRC but will nonetheless be assured citizenship. The CAA has also received opposition - in particular in several northeastern states - due to fears that it will encourage an influx of immigrants that will affect the ethnic balance. 

The Lok Sabha (lower house of parliament) passed the CAA legislation on December 9, while the Rajya Sabha (upper house of parliament) passed the bill on December 11. India's Supreme Court refused petitions to halt the implementation of the CAA on December 18. A hearing on the act has been scheduled for January 22. Nationwide protests opposing the CAA began on December 10; security forces have killed at least six protesters as of December 15. 


Individuals in India are advised to monitor developments, avoid all protests and demonstrations, prepare for transportation, business, and communications disruptions, and adhere to all instructions issued by the local authorities.