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Bahrain Country Report

Country Risk Level



Executive Summary

The Bahraini government implemented a USD11.4-billion support package to mitigate the dual shocks of a collapse in global crude oil prices and a slowdown in trade caused by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The package is equivalent to approximately 29.6% of Bahrain's annual GDP. IHS Markit assesses that Bahrain is the most vulnerable of the GCC states to any prolonged global economic recession, and it expects Bahrain’s real GDP to contract by 5.20% in 2020. The key areas that were expected to drive growth included investment in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry and non-hydrocarbon sectors, such as finance, tourism, construction, and manufacturing. These will all be severely affected by the collapse of global oil prices and travel restrictions.The Sunni Al Khalifa monarchy's relationship with its majority Shia population has improved, despite the opposition groups' boycott of the two-round 2018 parliamentary and municipal elections on 24 November and 1 December. Opposition groups criticised the announcement to normalise relations with Israel in September 2020, but it is unlikely to lead to significant popular protest.There is an increased risk of Iranian attacks on US assets in the Gulf following the killing of Qods Force General Qassem Soleimani on 3 January. Bahrain is unlikely to be targeted by Iran outside a full war scenario due to the presence of the US 5th Fleet in Manama. However, in the event of a conflict between the US and Iran in the Gulf, it is highly likely that military, maritime, and aviation assets in Bahrain would be targets for Iran.Shia militants present a low risk to unsecured commercial assets in Manama, such as ATMs, shopping malls, and car dealerships, although successful attacks on assets with perimeter security fences. Sitra Island is a hotspot for Shia roadblocks.

Operational Outlook

By regional standards, Bahrain offers a relatively streamlined regulatory framework, while also allowing 100% foreign ownership in most sectors. Government tendering processes are relatively opaque and likely to offer preferential treatment to state monopolies and royal family-linked business interests. Organised labour strikes are uncommon and rarely become disruptive.


Any reported increase in Iranian material support for Bahraini Shia militants, if confirmed, would likely be intended to raise the costs of US regional escalation and to deter Bahraini support for military escalation. Crude IED attacks will overwhelmingly remain restricted to areas outside of central Manama.



Crime rates in Bahrain are generally low. The government has tightened anti-money-laundering legislation in recent years, although the Financial Action Task Force has identified weaknesses in the regulations for non-profit organisations being used for terror funding. Bahrain has a poor record on human trafficking and is both a transit route and an end destination for traffickers and victims from numerous Asian and Eastern European countries.

War Risks

The main security risk to Bahrain emanates from the elevated risk of an Iran-US/Saudi Arabia war, which would pose a severe risk of damage to Bahraini strategic infrastructure from Iranian retaliatory kinetic actions. The US Fifth Fleet in Manama would be a target in such a scenario. There is an elevated risk of minor naval incidents surrounding allegations of Iranian attempts to smuggle weapons to supply Shia militants in Bahrain and undermine the Saudi-backed Al-Khalifa monarchy. Although Iranian media and politicians will likely periodically state territorial claims to Bahrain, this is unlikely to move beyond rhetoric.

Social Stability

Infrequent small-scale protests and roadblocks are likely in Shia towns and villages, particularly when political trials are underway or on important anniversaries. However the prospect of a larger uprising has receded considerably since 2011 as the protest movement known as the February 14th Coalition has been severely weakened by the arrest and detention of activists. Unrest is likely to be concentrated in Shia districts in the north such as Duraz Jidhafs, Karbabad, and Sanabis. These can occasionally entail roadblocks using burning tyres, which are usually cleared within several hours. Assets without on-site security and those that lie outside frequently patrolled zones are at the highest risk of vandalism and arson.

Health Risk

Vaccines Required to Enter the Country

Yellow fever: There is no risk of contracting yellow fever in Bahrain. However, the government requires proof of vaccination for travelers arriving from countries with a risk of yellow fever transmission. A single dose of YF vaccine is sufficient to confer sustained life-long immunity against the disease.

Vaccines Recommended for All Travelers

Routine vaccinations: Consult your doctor to ensure all routine vaccinations - such as for diphtheria, tetanus, polio, tuberculosis, influenza, measles, mumps, pertussis, rubella, varicella, etc. - are up to date (include booster shots if necessary).

Vaccines Recommended for Most Travelers

Hepatitis A: The vaccine is given in two doses, six months apart, and is nearly 100 percent effective. The WHO recommends the vaccine be integrated into national routine immunization schedules for children aged one year or older.

Typhoid fever: The typhoid fever vaccine can be administered via injection (administered in one dose) or orally (four doses). The vaccine is only 50-80 percent effective, so travelers to areas with a risk of exposure to typhoid fever, a bacterial disease, should also take hygienic precautions (e.g. drink only bottled water, avoid undercooked foods, wash hands regularly, etc.). Children can be given the shot beginning at two years of age (six for the oral vaccine).

Vaccines Recommended for Some Travelers

Hepatitis B: The WHO recommends that all infants receive their first dose of vaccine as soon as possible after birth, preferably within 24 hours. The birth dose should be followed by two or three doses to complete the primary series. Routine booster doses are not routinely recommended for any age group.

Rabies: The rabies vaccination is typically only recommended for travel to remote areas and if the traveler will be at high risk of exposure (e.g. undertaking activities that will bring them into contact with dogs, cats, bats, or other mammals). The vaccination is administered in three doses over a three-to-four week period. Post exposure prophylaxis is also available and should be administered as soon as possible following contact with an animal suspected of being infected (e.g. bites and scratches).

Natural Risks

In terms of weather-related concerns, sand and dust storms, as well as periodic drought, are not uncommon.

During the summer (April to October) temperatures can rise to 50°C with humidity.

In November 2015 the country was hit by flash floods that led to substantial material damage.



Located off the Dammam coast of Saudi Arabia, the island of Bahrain is connected to Saudi Arabia by a 24 km (15 mi) bridge.

Bahrain's road network is well developed.

Vehicles are driven on the right side of roadways. Only Bahraini and international driving licenses are accepted. The country has strict drunk driving laws. With a "zero tolerance" policy, Bahraini authorities can arrest drivers or levy a fine of more than USD 1067 (EUR 1000) if caught drinking and driving.

Public transportation and taxis are usually safe and reliable. However, some sexual harassment cases have been reported. Uber ridesharing is also well established in the country.

The Bahrain international airport is located 7 km (4 mi) away from Manama and connects Bahrain to many countries. It is considered a hub for the airline company Gulf Air. In January 2016, Bahrain banned flights to and from Iran.

Foggy conditions and sandstorms commonly occur and can disrupt traffic. Bahrain also experiences heavy rains that can lead to flooding.

The government has imposed a curfew in its territorial waters from 18:00 until 04:00 (local time).

Practical Information


Bahrain is very hot (38°C) and humid from April until October. Sandstorms can strike during the summer months. From November until the end of April, temperatures are mild (18°C in January) but nights are cool. Rain can fall between December and March, sometimes accompanied by strong winds.

Useful Numbers

Country Code: +973
Police: 999
Fire Dept.: 999
Ambulance: 999


Voltage: 230 V ~ 50 Hz


Risk Level
Critical High Medium Low Minimal