On Tuesday, March 24, the Brazilian government confirmed a total of 2201 coronavirus (COVID-19) cases and 46 associated deaths. The most affected state is San Pablo, with 810 cases and 40 deaths. Several states have implemented restrictions for their residents in efforts to control the outbreak. For example, San Pablo has asked non-essential businesses to close and for residents to remain at home when possible, though has not required the restriction of movement outright. In addition, the governor of Sao Paulo implemented a 15-day quarantine in the state starting Tuesday, March 24, for 15 days. Essential services, such as hospitals, dental clinics, supermarkets, bakeries, banks and public transport will continue to operate.
The government announced on Sunday, March 22, it has agreed to close its border with Uruguay in efforts to control the spread of COVID-19. The measure will remain in place for at least 30 days.
On Thursday, March 19, Brazilian President Jair Bolsonaro affirmed that the government would close the country's land borders with Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, Suriname, Guyana, and French Guiana for two weeks to prevent the spread of COVID-19; Brazil had previously closed its border with Venezuela on Tuesday, March 17. The restrictions do not apply to Brazilian nationals or foreigners residing in the country, while trucks carrying essential goods and people on humanitarian missions will continue to be allowed entry. In addition, travelers from the EU, the UK, Iceland, Norway, Switzerland, China, Japan, South Korea, Australia, and Malaysia have been temporarily prohibited from entering Brazil.
Further international spread of COVID-19 is expected over the near term.
The first case of COVID-19 was reported on December 31 and the source of the outbreak has been linked to a wet market in Wuhan (Hubei province, China). Human-to-human and patient-to-medical staff transmission of the virus have been confirmed. Many of the associated fatalities have been due to pneumonia caused by the virus.
Cases of the virus have been confirmed in numerous countries and territories worldwide. Virus-screening and quarantining measures are being implemented at airports worldwide, as well as extensive travel restrictions. On March 11, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the global outbreak a pandemic.
Pneumonia symptoms include dry cough, chest pain, fever, and labored breathing. Pneumonia can be contagious and can be transmitted from human to human. The influenza virus, or the flu, is a common cause of viral pneumonia.
Measures adopted by local authorities evolve quickly and are usually effective immediately. Depending on the evolution of the outbreak in other countries, authorities are likely to modify, at very short notice, the list of countries whose travelers are subject to border control measures or entry restrictions upon their arrival to the territory in question. It is advised to postpone nonessential travel due to the risk that travelers may be refused entry or be subject to quarantine upon their arrival or during their stay.
To reduce the risk of transmission, travelers are advised to abide by the following measures:
- Frequently clean hands by applying an alcohol-based hand rub or washing with soap and water.
- When coughing and sneezing, cover mouth and nose with a flexed elbow or tissue; if used, throw the tissue away immediately and wash hands.
- If experiencing a fever, cough, difficulty breathing, or any other symptoms suggestive of respiratory illness, including pneumonia, call emergency services before going to the doctor or hospital to prevent the potential spread of the disease.